According to the causes sinusitis can be classified in several ways:
According to the duration sinusitis can be classified:
How is sinusitis diagnosed?
Diagnostic tests to assess the potential causes for sinusitis may include a mucus culture, nasal endoscopy, X-rays, allergy testing, CT scan of the sinuses, blood or other tests for poor immune function.
Antibiotics will be prescribed for any bacterial infection found in the sinuses, however antibiotics are not effective against a viral infection. An antihistamine may be recommended for the treatment of allergies.
Antifungal medicine may be prescribed for a fungal sinus infection. Immunoglobulin (antibodies) may be given if you have certain immune deficiencies. Moreover, if your doctor has prescribed antibiotics or any other medications, be sure to follow the directions carefully. Sinusitis can be difficult to get rid of otherwise and can easily return if it's not fully treated the first time. Even if you feel better, it's important to keep taking your medicines until you've finished the course prescribed by your doctor.
Usually acute sinusitis should be treated for 10 - 14 days, chronic sinusitis should be treated for 3 - 4 weeks. If nothing doesn't help the best treatment is an operation, which is called functional endoscopis sinus surgery (FESS). This involves a surgeon inserting an endoscope into the nose. The endoscope used for this procedure is a thin rigid instrument that contains lenses. The endoscope allows a detailed magnified view of inside the nose. The surgeon can see the opening of the sinus drainage channels and can remove any tissues that are blocking the drainage of the affected sinus. This operation is minimally invasive and usually has a high success rate in relieving symptoms of chronic sinusitis.
What are complications of sinusitis?
Serious complications do not occur frequently, it is possible for sinus infection to cause a direct extension of infection into the brain through a sinus wall, creating a life-threatening emergency. In addition, other adjacent structures can become infected and develop problems, such as osteomyelitis of bones in the skull and infection around the eye.